Fig. 3 - Pulse Width Modulation Electrolysis

In later applications a small amount of users, 3-5%, began using Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) to control the On/Off time (duty cycle) of the cell thereby reducing the amount of power consumed. While some what effective, this did not address the other issues associate with water electrolysis.

Square1 Energy advanced this approach by developing “Smart Wave” technology. This uses “wave shaping” and varying frequencies to excite the water molecule to break apart using less energy. PWM "Smart Wave" technology reduces and limits the amount of current passing through the Electrolyzer Cell, thereby preventing thermal runaway.. For the industry today, this is Best Practice.